an extra, pulp-like covering of certain seeds, like apples or peaches.



any organic matter which is available on a renewable basis through natural processes, like forests, grasslands, crop lands, or oceans.


the green matter in plants necessary to produce carbohydrates through photosynthesis

compound leaf

a leaf composed of several leaflets on a common stalk. These leaflets can in themselves be compound.


where flowers and fruits grow directly from the trunk or branches of a tree instead of at the tips of branches. This is a unique feature of tropical plants.

drought deciduous

a plant's ability to drop its leaves during dry or hot periods to avoid water loss through transpiration.


rising above the surrounding trees


a plant that grows on another in a non-parasitic relationship and gets its nutrients from water, dust particles, and the air.


flowering annual which is not a grass or grass-like.

nurse plant

a plant that contributes to the survival of seedlings of other species by providing shade and nutrients.

nutrient cycle

when vegetable and animal matter decomposes and nutrients are released back to the soil to be taken up by again by plants.


having leaflets arranged on each side of a common stalk


the ability of plants to produce their own food by converting energy from the sun, carbon dioxide, water and inorganic salts to produce carbohydrates with the aid of chlorophyll.


adapted for seizing or grabbing hold of something. Monkeys with prehensile tails can use them to hold on to branches for balance.


A mammal with a stomach which is divided into four compartments. It is able to extract the maximum amount of nutrients and moisture from the foods it eats by chewing a cud which consists of regurgitated, partially digested foods. Ruminants have cloven hooves and usually horns.


a horizontal stem at or just below the surface of the ground, which produces new plants from buds at its tips or nodes. Usually found in grasses.


a small opening in the epidermis of leaves through which the plant takes in carbon dioxide, and gives off water and oxygen


when a plant takes in carbon dioxide, and gives off water and oxygen through the stoma on the underside of its leaves